Frequently Asked Questions

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The register of trade mark currently maintained in electronic form contains interalia the trade mark  the class and goods/ services in respect of which it is registered including particulars affecting the scope of registration of rights conferred; the address of the proprietors; particulars of trade or other description of the proprietor; the convention application date (if applicable); where a trade mark has been registered with the consent of proprietor of an earlier mark or earlier rights, that fact.

Yes.  But the basic principle is that the trade mark applied for should not be substantially altered affecting its identity. Subject to this changes are permissible according to rules detailed in the subordinate legislation.

Yes.  It can be removed on application to the Registrar on prescribed form on the ground that the mark is wrongly remaining on the register.  The Registrar also can suo moto issue Notice for removal of a registered trade mark.

A Patent is a statutory right for an invention granted for a limited period of time to the patentee by the Government, in exchange of full disclosure of his invention for excluding others, from making, using, selling, importing the patented product or process for producing that product for those purposes without his consent.

Patent protection is territorial right and therefore it is effective only within the territory of India. However, filing an application in India enables the applicant to file a corresponding application for same invention in convention countries, within or before expiry of twelve months from the filing date in India. Therefore, separate patents should be obtained in each country where the applicant requires protection of his invention in those countries. There is no patent valid worldwide.

It is possible to file an international application known as PCT application in India in the Patent Offices located at Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi.  All these offices act as Receiving Office (RO) for International application. The addresses of these offices are available on the website of CGPDTM i.e.

An invention relating either to a product or process that is new, involving inventive step and capable of industrial application can be patented. However, it must not fall into the categories of inventions that are non- patentable under section 3 and 4 of the Act.

A patent application can be filed either by true and first inventor or his assignee, either alone or jointly with any other person. However, legal representative of any deceased person can also make an application for patent.

A patent application can be filed with Indian Patent Office either with complete specification or with provisional specification along with fee as prescribed in schedule I.  In case the application is filed with provisional specification, then one has to file complete specification within 12 months from the date of filing of the application.  There is no extension of time to file complete specification after expiry of said period.

From 20th July, 2007 the Indian Patent Office has put in place an online filing system for patent application.  More information for filing online application is available on the website of Patent Office i.e. This facility is also available for filing trademarks application.

किसी आविष्कार को पेटेंटयोग्य सामग्री होने के लिए निम्नलिखित मानदंड पूरे करने चाहिए

i) यह नवीन होना चाहिए

ii) इसमें आविष्कारी चरण होना चाहिए अथवा यह नॉन-ओबियस होना चाहिए।

iii) उसमें इतनी क्षमता होनी चाहिए कि उसका औद्योगिक अनुप्रयोग हो सके।

iv) यह पेटेंट अधिनियम, 1970 की धारा 3 और 4 के प्रावधानों के अंतर्गत नहीं आना चाहिए।


The application for patent should be filed before the publication of the invention and till then it should not be disclosed or published. Disclosure of invention by publication before filing of the patent application may be detrimental to novelty of the invention as it may no longer be considered novel due to such publication.  However, under certain conditions, there is grace period of 12 months for filing application even after publication.

Generally, a patent application for the invention which has been either published or publicly displayed cannot be filed. However the Patents Act provides a grace period of 12 months for filing of patent application from the date of its publication in a journal or its public display in a exhibition organised by the Government or disclosure before any learned society or published by applicant. The details conditions are provided under Chapter VI of the Act (Section 29-34).

A patent specification can be prepared by the applicant himself or his registered and authorized agent. The patent specification generally comprises of the title of the invention indicating its technical field, prior art, draw backs in the prior art, the solution provided by the inventor to obviate the drawbacks of the prior art, a concise but sufficient description of the invention and its usefulness, drawings (if Any) and details of best method of its working. The complete specification must contain at least one claim or statement of claims defining the scope of the invention for which protection is sought for.

Indian Patent Law follows first to file system.  Provisional specification describes the nature of the invention to   have the priority date of filing of the application in which the inventive idea has been disclosed. It must be followed by a complete specification describing the details of the invention along with a statement of claims within 12 months after filing of the provisional application.  If the complete specification is not filed within the prescribed period, the application is treated as deemed to have been abandoned

Generally, an application filed with provisional specification is known as provisional application which is useful in establishing a priority date for your invention.  Moreover, filing of a provisional application is useful as it gives sufficient time to the applicant to assess and evaluate the market potential of his invention before filing complete specification.  However, it is not necessary to file an application with provisional specification and one can file application directly with complete specification.

Yes.  All the patent applications are kept secret upto 18 months from the date of filing or priority date whichever is earlier and thereafter they are published in the Official Journal of the Patent Office which is published every week and also available on the IPO website.  After its publication, public can inspect the documents and also may take the photocopy thereof on payment of the fee as prescribed.

Every application for patent is published after 18 months from the date of its filing or priority date whichever is earlier. However, following applications are not published.

A)    Application in which secrecy direction is imposed

B)    Application which has been abandoned u/s 9(1) and

C)    Application which has been withdrawn 3 months prior to 18 months

Yes, the applicant can make a request for early publication in Form 9 along with the prescribed fee.  After receiving such request the Patent Office publishes such application within a period of one month provided the invention contained thereon does not relate to atomic energy or defence purpose.

The patent application is not examined automatically after its filing.  The examination is done only after receipt of the request of examination either from the applicant or from third party.

The request for examination can be filed within a period of 48 months from the date of priority or date of filing of the application whichever is earlier.  For more details kindly refer to rule 24B of the Patents Rules 2003 as amended upto 2006.

There is no provision for filing a request for early examination. The applications are examined in the order in which requests for examination are filed. However, an express request for examination before expiry of 31 months can be made in respect of the applications filed under Patent Cooperation Treaty known as National Phase applications by payment of the prescribed fee.

After examination, the Patent office issues an examination report to the applicant which is generally known as First Examination Report (FER). Thereafter the applicant is required to comply with the requirements within a period of twelve months from the date of FER.  In case, the application is found to be in order for grant, the patent is granted, provided there is no pre-grant opposition is filed or pending.  A letter patent is issued to the applicant.  However, in case a pre-grant opposition is pending, the further action is taken after disposition of the pre-grant opposition.

If the applicant is not able to comply with or meet the requirement within 12 months, or does not submit the documents which were sent to him for compliance within the said period, the application is deemed to have been abandoned.

There is no provision for extension of time beyond the period of 12 months.